Painting the Skin Tone
Painting the Figure – Part 3
There are many styles, colour palettes and methods artists present and past used for painting the skin tone, and of course it won’t do to just mix a universal ‘flesh colour’.
Although I like to study as much of the old masters and their palettes as I can, as well as living artists’ methods, colour mixing is pretty intuitive for me; I’m thinking more in terms of colour temperature and value than following someone else’s method, rules, or anything else.
Colours and brushes for painting the skin tone
So for this session, I mixed up some titanium white, Naples yellow, gold ochre and light red for the warm flesh tones after the cool halftones I worked on in the last post.
I focused more on the areas of light and warmth here, starting with areas such as the upper trapezius, the upper edge of the arm, knee and feet which are catching the light.
I used hog’s hair bristle brushes: mainly filberts, but also flats, and a medium-sized round for blending and softening the edges a little. Edge control is very important for describing the mood or atmosphere of the painting.
The range of brush sizes I used were mostly in the middle range between no.2’s to no.8’s.
So I tried to keeping one of my main brushes for the yellow tints, and the other for the pinks, always paying attention to the subdivision of warms and cools even in the ‘warm’ range.
Naples yellow, especially when mixed with a bit of white, is quite a ‘cool’ yellow. Pinks made with light red and white, are fairly earthy and subdued, which I like.
And there are a whole range of dusty oranges between, with gold ochre thrown in. Just those three colours, plus varying degrees of white, gives you a lot to work with. This time, I didn’t want to grey the colour down too much by adding greens and blues into the mix.
I try to not go too crazy with my colour mixing, preferring the control one can achieve through a more limited palette.
I also added raw umber and Payne’s grey, but that was for working on the sand and foreground.
Taking your time and checking yourself
I try to to rush my painting, or push it too far by overworking. Instead, I take my time, take many breaks and step backwards often to check myself and see the painting from a distance.
Oil paint is transparent, which is a great advantage for glazing or scumbling techniques. But it also means that the paint needs time to ‘sink in’. It usually dries a little duller and becomes more transparent than when it was originally wet.
Obviously it depends on the quality of the paint you’re using. But I usually anticipate coming back around a second time to push the brighter, light areas, rather than applying huge dollops of paint. That’s not really my style — I’m a bit of a conservative painter, not needing large amounts of oil paint.
I also have a mirror behind me, which I use for checking the painting in reverse and resetting my brain to pick up any obvious proportion errors or jarring value or colour transitions.
Stepping back also gives me a chance to compose the rhythms and symmetries in the painting, such as the movement of the clouds, and the ripples in the sand. I think about balancing the composition with dark masses, and lines of action or direction.
The overpainting layer
I call this stage the overpainting or ‘second’ layer as opposed to the underpainting layers. You can build up as many ‘overpainting layers as necessary, bearing in mind the fat over lean rule, where you don’t add solvent-rich lean oil paint on top of thick oil-rich layers. You’ll eventually get cracking.
But I tend to keep my paint layers fairly thin in any case, and don’t use much solvent or oil in between. I try to use good quality paint straight from the tube as much as possible.
And I leave the painting to dry for at least a week and work on something else in the meantime.
Painting the skin tone in many successive glazes was a common Flemish or Venetian technique of the Old Masters, like Titian, Giorgione or Van Eyck.
Later, in the Renaissance Period, artists discovered the scumbling technique.
Scumbling in the flesh tones
Scumbling is the process of gently rubbing the oil paint onto the painting in a semi-transparent, thin film. It’s similar to glazing, (which is generally transparent due to the use of a medium like oil or alkyd), but with the difference that scumbling usually contains the addition of white (be it flake white, zinc white, titanium etc.)
I used traditional Naples yellow which contains lead or flake white, which I particularly like for scumbling, as it’s a bit more transparent than titanium white. Thus, you can control the values with the amount of paint you apply, and still see the layers beneath.
Scumbling is useful for lightening the values, like when you increase the exposure on a dark photograph.
It’s also useful for modeling and carving out the forms. And is an especially wonderful technique for painting the human body.
Using scumbling techniques for painting the skin tone gives you the ability to create soft gradations across the value changes.
And it also sets you up for adding the warm glazes that are to come.
Check out my Sirens series, which this painting I’m working on is a part of.